In an ecosystem there are organisms living totally isolated from their environment. These are part of theenvironment , rich in non-living elements – inorganic matter – and other organisms of the same or other species, which form an interaction . The relationships between species can be very diverse, ranging from a species that feeds on another (predation), to both species living in a mutually beneficial (mutualism). 1
Biological interactions are classified as:
? Neutrality : we found when two species interact but does not affect the other.
? Mutualism (the relationship between two species that are mutually beneficial is not mandatory or temporary)
? Symbiosis (the relationship between the two species is mandatory and can not benefit or both).
? Protocooperation (interaction in which two organisms or populations benefit from each other, the relationship is not essential for the life of both, as they can live separately. It can even between organisms of different kingdoms, as in the case of flowers and pollinators )
? Amensalism (association that is harmful to one species and neutral for the other)
? Commensalism (association in which one species is benefited and the other is not benefited or harmed)
? Inquilinismo (commensalism similar association in which one species benefits to be housed while the other is benefited or harmed)
? Facilitation (partnership in which at least one species benefits)
? Competition (association between two species or organisms in which both share a limiting environmental factor for growth)
? Predation (interaction in which one species captures and eats another.
The predator is usually larger than the prey)
? Parasitism (interaction in which one species benefits and one is injured. The parasite is usually smaller than the host)
? Allelopathy (chemical interaction between two organisms of the same species or between organisms of different species in which an organism injures or kills another by the removal of chemicals)
? Mutual exclusion (interaction in which one species excludes the other from the same habitat, and vice versa. Generally, the exclusion is made by common habitat alteration)
? Macroorganism is the term to refer to the harmonious symbiosis of very simple things that would give rise to more complex a living being.
? This hypothetical form of life has proven to be feasible in artificial life simulations, by creatures called metacélulas , which form a colony in which each child would store a single gene differ between them.
Mautam (source term Mizo ) is the name given to a cyclic ecological phenomenon that occurs every 48 years in the state of Mizoram in northeast India, which has 31% of its territory covered by forests of bamboo , the species predominating baccifera Melocanna contributing 95% of the bamboo forest. 1During this period, the Melocanna baccifera , a species of bamboo blooms common in the state, resulting in a plague of rats Bandicota whose actions cause a devastating famine . 2 The main event recently occurred in May 2006 , and several efforts were undertaken by the state government and theIndian army to prevent famine. In the past, famines caused by this natural phenomenon have helped shape the political history of the region.
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Population, community and ecosystem.